Scientifically known as Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb, Rudraksha tree is a large evergreen broad-leaved tree, which grows in the area from the Genetic Plain to the foothills of the great Himalayas and the middle area of Nepal. The main trunk of Rudraksha tree is cylindrical and has circular section. Rudraksha tree has grayish white bark and rough in texture with small vertical lenticels and narrow horizontal furrows. Its branches spread in all directions. Its leaves appear shining green externally and dull coriaceous internally. It has ovoid, conical and elongate flowers, nearly 1 to 2 cm in diameter. Its fruit is globes and drupaceous having a fleshy exterior and is light green in color. Rudraksha beads are covered by an outer shell which is blue in color and is hard and tubercled on the inside. On each Rudraksha seed vertical lines are seen running down its surface. These lines are called mukhi or “the clefts or furrows on the surface” and determine the type of mukhi Rudraksha. For instance Seeds with one vertical line are one mukhi Rudraksha, those with two lines are two mukhi and so on. Rudraksha beads contain 50.031 % carbon, 0.95% nitrogen, 17.897% hydrogen and 30.53% oxygen. It takes 15 to16 years for Rudraksha to mature and bear fruits. It is kept in water for a number of days and then Rudraksha is taken out after peeling off the pulp.
Rudraksha comes from 1 to 38 mukhis, but Rudrakshas of 1 to 14 mukhis are commonly found. The five-faced Rudraksha are found easily and abundantly. One mukhi Rudraksha is extremely rare Rudraksha. Depending upon the availability and production of Rudraksha different prices have been allocated for different mukhi Rudraksha.